A Philosophy of Light

Recently I flipped through an essay by Roger Scruton called “How I Became a Conservative,” where he charts his course to philosophical conservatism from the Student Riots of 1968's Paris to his professorship in the 1980s. He mentioned how during the Student Riots, a friend of his (one of the rioters) justified the mayhem with a book by Michel Foucault called The Order of Things. Scruton had few kind words for the book, but one thing he did say stuck with me: “The book is not a work of philosophy but an exercise in rhetoric. Its goal is subversion, not truth...."

That last remark in particular wedged itself into my mind. As a member of the postmodern “millennial” generation, I have found myself flummoxed by the strange audacities committed in our name. Rampant relativism, divisive and demonizing identity politics, the near deification of doubt and skepticism, and a narcissistic insistence on a conformity to our own “authenticity,” i.e., if something doesn't speak to or resonate with us then we have no ears for it and that's that. A lot of books have been written in defense of these foibles, some of them religious in content, most of them mystical in tone.

 Seems legit...

Seems legit...

It is that mystical quality that intrigued me. When I would read the histories (or “archeologies”) of Foucault or the popular theology of Rob Bell, I found a common consistency: what they said was sometimes gibberish (with Foucault) or innuendous (with Bell), but it was always artful, infused with a pathological flair of delivery. Some of Foucault’s best chapters are his last ones, where he drops all pretenses to scholarship and simply slips into the artist that he is, weaving an intoxicating and provocatively put pack of extraordinary lies. Bell is even better, being an artist from start to finish. Whether or not his books are products of serious study, they are certainly products of creativity.

Anyone with a critical eye can see through all the ornamentation to the real substance of such works, which is either radical utopianism (Foucault) or old theological liberalism (Bell) dressed up in newer, fancier garb.

Yet such works gain traction, and it is because of their fancy garb. There is something to be said for the power of beauty: it has a moral force, for good or ill. In the best case, it will create true love, which will drive you towards acts of true goodness. So in Paradise Lost, Satan himself is struck “stupidly good” when he sees the unfallen beauty of Eve (IX.455-66); and so also in The Divine Comedy, Dante’s journey is predicated on love, viz., the love of God mediated through Beatrice, a love Virgil often invokes to spur Dante on. In the worst case, false beauty (evil and error disguised as beauty) will create perverted love, which will drive you towards destructive ends. So in “Book I” of The Faerie Queene, Redcross is turned further from the journey of holiness by the false beauty of Duessa. In either case, beauty has great moral power: it shapes our sentiments, which in turn shapes our actions, which in turn shapes our culture (esp. our arts and entertainment), which in turn shapes us further. It is an inevitable and valuable as well as perilous cycle, especially if it falls into the wrong hands.

 Dante never knew what hit him.

Dante never knew what hit him.

As such, its abuse is incredibly dangerous. It can turn a man’s heart faster than any syllogism. As a writer, I speak as an artist myself and not just an academic: in the grand scheme of any debate, rhetoric often trumps logic. That is the meaning behind Scruton’s statement. It’s not what you say but how you say it, and if you speak it well then you can bombard people with any number of things, hiding your true meaning and purposes behind a flurry of colorful lights, like a fireworks display obscuring an incoming storm.

The exact purpose of all this rhetoric is indeed “subversion,” and the goal of subversion is the destruction of every so-called “truth” that totalizes us and thus imprisons us. Such a task can sound very noble, especially if you dress it up with terms like “tyranny” and “liberty,” “oppression” and “authenticity.” It can even speak of “truth” in a sense, i.e., all of the “truths” we've been given are just the oppressive constructs of previous generations, calcified over time. We must tear down those constructs so that we can get to the real essence of things (if there even is such an essence). One could very well argue—and I believe some do—that subversion is all about "truth": the destruction of its counterfeits and the discovery of its true form or nature.

Calling “subversion” the search for truth through destruction reminds me of The Fellowship of the Ring where Gandalf recounts his ill-fated meeting with Saruman. Gandalf discovers that Saruman has rejected his title of “the White” and has instead become “Saruman of Many Colors.” Gandalf retorts that he “liked white better.” Saruman sneers at this: “White! It serves as a beginning. White cloth may be dyed. The white page can be overwritten, and the white light can be broken.” Gandalf's reply is another statement that has stuck with me: “In which case it is no longer white, and he that breaks a thing to find out what it is has left the path of wisdom.”

 "Yea hath God said?"

"Yea hath God said?"

Tolkien was referencing a medieval theory of light. Medieval Christianity viewed light as the perfect physical image for God, being not only pure and clarifying but also a hypostatic unity of multiples. Such logic is fundamentally Trinitarian, as is all of Christianity. Every inch of Christian thought and act and artistry revolves around this central notion of separates being one while remaining separates (neither confounding the persons nor dividing the substance). The Trinity is the highest expression of this (three in one). There is also the Incarnation (God and Man) as well as the Atonement (God and man). The Church fits the bill (one body, many members), as does the Bible (66 books of different genres written at different times and places in different contexts, yet all unified around a singular theme, i.e., Christ). The Liturgy is built upon many separate elements coming together to form a singular worship, while the sense and structure of stained-glass windows and the cathedrals they adorn give vivid concrete testimony to the amassing together of many into one (without losing the many).

For the Christian, existence (from the foundations of ontos or dasein to the spectacles of quarks and quasars) has always been a fragmented whole, a great and glorious tapestry of many threads of many colors(!) woven into a singular image. Reality, truth: these things have always been a work of art, not a didactic platitude. Truth cannot be summarized in a statement or a system; that is why it was summarized in a person (John 14:6). The swirling complexities of reality are captured by the irresistible gravity of an incomprehensible center that is God. But that capture does nothing to diminish the complexities, any more than gravity diminishes the stars. On the contrary, it is their capture by gravity that gives us the beauty of the night sky, with its constant constellations and expansive Milky Way. From the foundations of Trinitarian doctrine, you arrive at a philosophy of light, which says that it is neither unity nor diversity, neither calcification nor fragmentation, but rather the whole spectrum working in unison, in perfect, sublime harmony and holism.

 Not that I see it, but by it I see all else...

Not that I see it, but by it I see all else...

It is this Trinitarian logic of synthesis that has been missed by the radicals of yesterday and today. They fear solidification at every turn, so they tear it down. To them, the light is nothing to them but blinding, so they break it that they might better see. But then it is not light at all, just disparate colors scattered about without direction or clarity. And in such a catastrophe, one of two things typically happens. Either they revel (or despair) in that prismatic chaos they have created, or they try to contain the madness by reducing everything to one of the disparate colors. Thus, everything becomes a reductionism: it all boils down to economics, or genetics, or sex, or race, or class, or truth-to-power, or pacifism, or socialism, or patriotism, or doubt, or whatever else comes and goes in fashion. Whatever way they go, they have broken the whole, and have left the path of wisdom.

I end this post with a parable, told by G.K. Chesterton in the first chapter of his book Heretics. It is not his best book, but it is relevant here. Each chapter has Chesterton dealing a deathblow to a different kind of reductionism, for subversion (rhetorical or otherwise) has been in vogue for a long time now, which is why today we are practically drowning in it:

Suppose that a great commotion arises in the street about something, let us say a lamp-post, which many influential persons desire to pull down. A grey-clad monk, who is the spirit of the Middle Ages, is approached upon the matter, and begins to say, in the arid manner of the Schoolmen, “Let us first of all consider, my brethren, the value of Light. If Light be in itself good—” At this point he is somewhat excusably knocked down. All the people make a rush for the lamp-post, the lamp-post is down in ten minutes, and they go about congratulating each other on their unmedieval practicality.

But as things go on they do not work out so easily. Some people pulled the lamp-post down because they wanted an electric light; some because they wanted old iron; some because they wanted darkness, because their deeds were evil. Some thought it not enough of a lamp-post, and some too much; some acted because they wanted to smash municipal machinery, and some because they wanted to smash something. And there is war in the night, no man knowing whom he strikes.

So, gradually and inevitably, today, tomorrow, or the next day, there comes back the conviction that the monk was right after all, and that all depends on what is the philosophy of Light. Only what we may have discussed under the gas-lamp, we now must discuss in the dark.

Built to Behold

"One thing have I desired of the Lord, [and] that I will seek after: that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and inquire in His temple." (Ps. 27:4)

We all know why pornography in any form is wrong. The arguments have been made again and again. It is the objectification of human beings that reduces and degrades an individual person's unique Image-bearing self down to a mere sexual object. It is also inherently selfish, a one-way street of desire, where everything is taken in by the voyeur but nothing given in return, and thus reduces and degrades the voyeur to a mere appetite, an animalistic maw, a black hole, an empty void and abyss. Pornography is the hell of the users and the used.

 Whatever you want me to be...

Whatever you want me to be...

There is, however, another reason why it is wrong, a reason that strikes at the very essence of what pornography is and therefore its essential perversion. To put it another way, if evil is merely the corruption and perversion of some good, then pornography, being evil, is essential a perverted good, and it is the perversion of that good that reveals the true tragedy. And guess what? It isn't about sex. We assume this, and understandably so (for pornography speaks to sexual desire), but it is not the true core, the most basic good it corrupts and destroys. Peel back the sexual, and you find a more fundamental drive, one that speaks to a unique element of our humanness: we are built to behold.

When David says there is "one thing" that he desires above all else, we need to listen careful to his answer. What he desires is intense intimacy and communion with God (which is the true sense of the word "dwell" in Hebrew), and that intimacy comes in two forms. One is the pursuit of true knowledge ("to inquire in His temple"). The other is aesthetic appreciation: "behold" in Hebrew means to contemplate with pleasure. This is no small thing. It is similar to the experience one may get when considering a work of art (such as a painting or sculpture or building), but is also similar to the experience everyone has when they look at their beloved, especially eye to eye. Indeed, looking upon beautiful things does something to us that we can't quite understand. We feel drawn in and locked out, called forth and ignored, embraced and left behind. And all this merely in the act of seeing that is also somehow experiencing. To see is, in some way, to experience; and the more intense or profound the sight, then the more intense or profound the experience.

 Eye to eye

Eye to eye

This was not lost on philosophy, and certainly not Christian philosophy. Plato and Aristotle both saw the contemplation of the "Good" as the highest end to human pleasure and happiness (though they disagreed on how to reach such contemplation), and later Christian thinkers like Augustine, Anselm, Bonaventure, and Aquinas would work off of them and conclude that since God is "the Good" and God is love, then the only way to truly contemplate Him was to love what we contemplated, to behold Him with pleasure. It is from this logic that Dante's Divine Comedy concludes with the Beatific Vision, the pure beholding of God that is also communion with God.

This Vision is no mere fancy of mystics. On the contrary, it is exactly what Christ prayed for in reference to all believers. During His prayer in John 17, Jesus refers to "the glory" that He enjoyed with God "before the world was" (vs. 5), and that that same glory would pass on through Him to all who believe in Him (vs. 20-23). What exactly is this "glory" that Christ shared with God before the world was made and that He now shares with all believers? The communal love found in the Trinity itself: "that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us.... And the glory which Thou gave Me I give to them, that they may be one, even as We are one: I in them and Thou in Me.... That the love with which Thou has loved Me may be in them, and I in them" (vs. 20-26).

In both the Old and New Testament, the "glory" of God is shorthand for his essential nature, who and what He really is at His core. What Christ revealed about God's "glory" was the mystery of communal love found in the Trinity, and it is that "glory" we are called to and swept up into so that we may behold: "Father, I will that they also, whom Thou has given Me, be with Me where I am, that they may behold my glory which Thou has given Me, for Thou loved Me before the foundation of the world" (John 17:24). This is eternal life: to know God and Christ in a deep, intimate way (John 17:3), the intimacy of seeing that is also experiencing, for we were built to behold.

 Dante approaches home...

Dante approaches home...

It is that good that pornography fundamentally perverts. We are built to behold the Good, whether in its substance found in the triune love of the Godhead, or in its beautiful shadows found in sunsets, in paintings and sculptures, and (yes) in the naked, freely given body of the beloved to whom you also freely give yourself. Our eyes were made to see God, and thus experience God, now and forever, and this is what makes pornography so perverse and yet so powerful: it is tapping into our fundamental drive to behold the Good, to behold God, to have the door open and the clouds part and the gray rain curtain of this world rise up and away and reveal the home our hearts ache to have, our real home, our real Lover and Friend.

We are built to behold, and porn is the perversion of beholding.

Why Western Studies?

Evidence of Western Decline

Cultural critics are rightly concerned that we are declining as a civilization in the West.  Once Western civilization imagined and created universities, hospitals, cathedrals, great art and music, all through the thoughtful combination of Greek and Christian thought that formed the basis for Western Reason (exemplified in the writings of Augustine and Aquinas).  Today, while we may sustain the outward appearance of these institutions, our culture has lost the general Christian convictions it once held, and the result is that these institutions are becoming hollowed-out and confused.  Universities teach there is no truth, hospitals practice abortion, great cathedrals house more tourists than worshippers, fine art has gone from public significance to private museums, and we no longer believe there is a connection between faith and reason.  We are living on borrowed capital from that earlier age of faith, and many historians and cultural critics are predicting that the West as a civilization is lost.  While none would want to go back to a world of plagues, feudal warfare and bad plumbing (which is still the way of life in many other parts of the world), we would like to regain and retain anything that past generations have accomplished that could be called truly timeless, and we want to find ways to apply those ideas to human life in our own day.

There is also a mounting concern to solve the problems our culture faces.  Compassionate citizens desire to see something done for those in need.  Some would offer money, vocational education, or training in literacy.  Some would work toward ideological freedom from oppression of various sorts:  sexual, familial, racial, economic, and political.  Wouldn’t it be more helpful to teach the next generations to grow in their knowledge and application of the accumulated wisdom of our culture?  Thinking our forefathers’ ideas after them is not the domain of the rich or privileged any longer.  Wisdom is available to all who avail themselves of it.  But what is this accumulated wisdom?  It seems our universities disagree about it.  Is it a catalogue of answers to all possible questions?  Or the gnostic knowledge of the few handed to the privileged?  Is it Rationalism?  Scientism?  Communism?  Feminism?  Is it Irrationalism?  Taoism?  Confucianism?  Islam?  Is it a combination of all of these?  Some sort of Universalism?  Jungian archetypes found in the echoes of all “isms”?  Or rather could wisdom be the view of the world as put forth in the Bible, that there is an eternal God who made things by speaking His designs into existence; Who created man and woman in His image for good work, gave them both written and general revelation, and a mind to bring the pieces of this revelation together in cohesion; who loved His created people so much that He offered Himself in their place when they rebelled against Him, who has designed a way for us (through the death of our selfish selves) to live in unity and peace with Him forever, and who thinks enough of both His design of us and the design of creation itself to build a new heaven and earth for our reborn selves to live in?

But Western?

Some would question giving special privilege to Western culture.  Shouldn’t Christians be giving equal attention to human cultures throughout the world?  We argue that the very existence of the study of non-Western cultures is the result of Western scholarship.  It has not been the rich and varied Indian, Chinese, and African cultures that have inquired about all cultures, rather it is the studied and trained eyes and minds of the West that have made it possible to know and love what is great about other cultures.

But what about multi-culturalism?  Aren’t we being a bit sheltered by only considering the West?  It turns out that Western civilization is a combination of many different cultures.  Western civilization includes influences from the Middle East and North Africa as well as Greek, Roman, Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Scandinavian, Gallic, and Slavic influences (to name only a few).  It is nowhere near as monolithic as some would have us think.  The West itself is a varied mosaic based on a set of basic ideas about God, man, and cosmos that when applied give birth to cultures as diverse as Scot and Slav, American Hillbilly and Coptic Egyptian – the result of many different peoples embracing the truth of the Christian gospel (even if in the last 200 years that gospel has been increasingly dismissed).  This thinking has spread everywhere the West has sent missionaries, so that Western thinking has taken root in South America as well as South Korea, and born delightful varieties of art, music, cooking, architecture, and literature.

The basis of knowledge is faith


If this is correct, then to ignore this foundational Christian view of the world will make it impossible to make any sense of the life we’ve been given, or see the good to be found in either Western culture OR any other culture.  Many questions have haunted mankind in every generation:  where did we come from?  What is this life for?  What is love, what is death?  How do we explain our experiences of joy and despair, or of the haunting notion that this world is not all there is?  Unless we take into account the plans of God we can study whatever we choose wherever we like but it seems to ultimately lead only to nonsense and madness.  Further, without God’s revealing that our minds are reliable, reason itself becomes untrustworthy, and therefore absurd.  So the basis of any real knowledge must be faith, and as Christians, that faith is quite specific.  This is the foundation we offer at the Center for Western Studies, and on that foundation we study the great books, art, music, and history of our own Western ancestors